The Indian Constitution is three times the Constitution of USA.
Today India is celebrating 69 years of being Republic. So on this auspicious day let us know the history and importance of the Constitution which was adopted on 26th November 1949, and finally enacted on 26th January 1950.
What is a Constitution?
Constitution is a set of fundamental principles that are required to govern a state, union or any other organizations. It also sets responsibility or duties among all the individuals of an organization.
History of Indian Constitution:
Before 1935 India never had it’s own Constitution as we were under the rule of British crown. M.N Roy in 1934 came up with an idea of Constitution. The then single largest party, Indian National Congress ( INC ) demanded the British Government for their own Constitution and came up with a Government of India Act of 1935. In 1940 through the August Offer the British Government accepted the demand of the INC.
Lord Attlee, the then British Prime Minister in 1946, sent a cabinet mission, headed by Sir Pathick Lawrence to India. The purpose of the Cabinet Mission Plan was to help India achieve it’s independence as early as possible and to help them in formulating the Constitution for themselves.
Working of Constituent Assembly:
Under the Cabinet Mission Plan of 1946 a Constituent Assembly was been formed. It’s first meeting was held on 9th December 1946 which was attended by 211 members. The members of the assembly then on 11th December 1946, elected Dr. Rajendra Prasad as the permanent President and H. C. Mukherjee as the Vice-President of the Constituent Assembly. On 13th December Jawahar Lal Nehru proposed an “Objective Resolution”( later known as the Preamble ), that laid down the fundamental principles of the Constitution. It was accepted by the Constituent Assembly on 22nd January 1947 and subsequently adopted National Flag on 22nd July 1947.
The Constituent Assembly further formed 18 important committees to frame the Indian Constitution. The entire Constitution was been drafted by the Drafting Committee, chaired by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar.
Less known Facts about the Indian Constitution:
- It is the largest written Constitution in the world.
- It was written entirely in English language.
- The makers of the Constitution gone through the Constitution of 60 countries.
- The total expenditure that was incurred that time in making the Constitution was 64 lakhs.
- It took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days for the Constituent Assembly to finalise the Constitution.
- Though, the Constitution was adopted on 26th November 1949, it was enacted on 26th January 1950. The idea behind choosing the day of 26th January was done by many INC leaders. The 26th January 1930 was seen as the first celebration of Indian independence( during time of Poorn Swaraj ).
Features of Indian Constitution:
- Lengthiest Written Constitution: The Indian Constitution is the largest written Constitution in the world. It is three times the Constitution of U. S. A.
- Blend of Flexibility and Rigidity: The Constitution of India is rigid in the matters of Democracy, Republic, Sovereign, etc. On the same hand it also enables the Parliament to amend some of it provisions.
- Parliamentary Form of Government: The Constitution of India establishes a parliamentary form of government for both the Centre and the States. It divides the power between the Centre and the States.
- A Federation with Strong Centralising Tendency: The Constitution of India establishes Federal System of Government i.e, dividing power, having two government, etc. It also empowers the Union Parliament to legislate on any subject mentioned in the state list.
- An Independent Judiciary: The Indian Constitution establishes an independent and impartial judiciary with the power judicial review. It is a custodian rights of citizens.
- Single Citizenship: The Constitution of India provides a single Citizenship for all of it’s citizens. Every Indian possess same rights of Citizenship no matter which state he or she resides.
- Adult Suffrage: The Constitution of India abolished the old system of communal electoral and adopted the uniform Suffrage System. Every Indians above the age of 18 has been given the right to elect their representatives to the legislature.